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Brief Introduction to China

The People Republic of China is situated in eastern Asia on the western shore of the Pacific Ocean, with an area of 9.6 million square kilometers. China's continental coastline extends for about 18,000 kilometers, and its vast sea surface is studded with more than 5,000 islands, of which Taiwan and Hainan are the largest. Land Formation and Rivers China's land drops off in escarpments eastward to the ocean, letting in humid air current and leading many rivers eastward. Among the rivers totaling 220,000 kilometers in length in China, the Changjiang (Yangtze) and the Huanghe (Yellow) are world known.

China has beautiful scenery, with mountains and ranges, highlands, plains, basins, and hills. The highlands and hill regions account for 65 percent of the country's total land mass, and there are more than 2,000 lakes. The highest mountain peak is Qomolangma (Everest), the highest in the world, 8,848 meters above sea level; the lowest point is the Turpan Basin, 154 meters below sea level.


China is characterized by a continental climate. The latitude spans nearly 50 degrees. The greater part of the Chinese territory is situated in the Temperate Zone, its southern part in the tropical and subtropical zones, and its northern part near the Frigid Zone. Temperatures differ therefore rather strikingly across the country. The northern part of Heilongjiang Province has long winters but no summers; while the Hainan Island has long summers but no winters. The Huaihe River valley is marked by distinctive seasonal changes, but it is spring all year round in the south of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. In the northwest hinterland, the temperature changes dramatically. China high tundra zone is situated in the Qinghai-Tibet, where the temperature is low in all four seasons. Some desert areas are dry all year round.


China abounds in natural resources. It leads the world in many proven mineral deposits; No country in the world boasts more wildlife than China, many of which are native to China, such as giant panda, snub-nosed golden monkey, and Chinese alligator; China's dawn redwood and Cathaya argyrophylla are known as the living fossils of ancient plants.

The People's Republic of China was founded on October 1,1949. Today, China is implementing reform and opening-up policies, and has established socialist market economy, thereby charting the course for socialist modernization with Chinese characteristics. Population China, as the word's most populous country, has a population exceeding 1.2 billion, which makes up 22 percent of the world total.To bring population growth under control, the country has followed a family planning policy since the 1970s.

India - China Relationship

China and India are the world's most populous countries and also fastest growing major economies. The resultant growth in China and India's global diplomatic and economic influence has also increased the significance of their bilateral relationship.

China and India are two of the world’s oldest civilizations and have coexisted in peace for millennia. Cultural and economic relations between China and India date back to ancient times. The Silk Road not only served as a major trade route between India and China, but is also credited for facilitating the spread of Buddhism from India to East Asia. During the 19th century, China's growing opium trade with the British Raj triggered the Opium Wars. During World War II, India and China played a crucial role in halting the progress of Imperial Japan. In 2008, China emerged as the largest trading partner of India and the two countries have also attempted to extend their strategic and military relations.

Recently, China has said that "Sino-Indian ties" would be the most "important bilateral partnership of the century". On June 21, 2012, Wen Jiabao, the Premier of China and Manmohan Singh, the Prime Minister of India set a goal to increase bilateral trade between the two countries to 100 billion dollars by 2015.

China Colleges List


Longer Historical Perspective

It begins with the outbreak of the Spanish–American War in April 1898, when the Philippines was still part of the Spanish East Indies. With the signing of the Treaty of Paris on August 12, 1898, Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States.The interim U.S. military government of the Philippine Islands experienced a period of great political turbulence, characterized by the Philippine–American War. Beginning in 1901, the military government was replaced by a civilian government — the Insular Government of the Philippine Islands — with William Howard Taft serving as its first Governor-General. From 1901 to 1906 there also existed a series of revolutionary governments that lacked significant international diplomatic recognition.

Following the passage of the Philippine Independence Act in 1934, a Philippine presidential election was held in 1935. Manuel L. Quezon was elected and inaugurated second President of the Philippines on November 15, 1935. The Insular Government was dissolved and the Commonwealth of the Philippines was brought into existence. The Commonwealth of the Philippines was intended to be a transitional government in preparation for the country's full achievement of independence in 1946.

Brief Introduction to Philippines

The Philippines is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. It is an archipelago made up of 7,106 islands located in relation to many of Southeast Asia’s main water bodies: the South China Sea, Philippine Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, and Luzon Strait. Proximate countries include Taiwan, Vietnam, and Indonesia. The geography is mountainous with narrow coastal lowlands. The government system is a republic. The chief of state and head of government is the President. The Philippines has a mixed economic system in which the economy includes a variety of private freedom, combined with centralized economic planning and government regulation. The Philippines is a member of Associated Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation.

Government policies are carefully designed to assist and promote industrial development. The Philippine middle class, being essential to economic prosperity, is taken special care of. Strategies for streamlining the economy include improvements of infrastructure, more efficient tax systems, furthering deregulation and privatization of the economy. As of 2006, The US and Japan are Philippines' biggest trading partners, which means that the country's economic prosperity also depends upon the economic performance of these nations.


Climate of the Philippines is either tropical rainforest, tropical savanna tropical monsoon, or humid subtropical (in higher-altitude areas) characterized by relatively high temperature, oppressive humidity and plenty of rainfall. There are two seasons in the country, the wet season and the dry season, based upon the amount of rainfall.[1] This is dependent as well on your location in the country as some areas experience rain all throughout the year (see Climate Types). Based on temperature, the seven warmest months of the year are from March to October; the winter monsoon brings cooler air from November to February. May is the warmest month, and January, the coolest.


Being surrounded by the ocean, it is no surprise that the Philippines relies on the waters as an important natural resource. There are more than 640,000 square miles of territorial waters in the Philippines and within these waters, there is an abundance of marine life and materials that are valuable to the nation's people and those across the world. At least 65 species of the 2,400 available species in Filipino waters have solid commercial value, and the crabs, seaweed, pearls and other ocean treasures make the sea among the top resources for this archipelago.

The Philippines is not a petroleum-rich country, but the land is still full of many valuable minerals. There are an estimated 21.5 billion metric tons of metal deposits in the Philippines and 19.3 billion metric tons of nonmetal minerals in the ground. Nickel is the most abundant deposit in the Philippines, while iron and copper are also present in significant amounts.

India - Philippines Relationship

India’s emerging influence in the international community has led to the promotion of its “Look East Policy,” a policy that specifically represents India’s efforts to cultivate extensive economic and strategic relations with its Southeast Asian neighbors in order to bolster its standing as a regional power and as a counterbalance to the strategic influence of China. It is with these developments surrounding India’s rising global influence that the Philippines should engage with India. Both countries share various similarities that can serve as a platform for deeper cooperation.

The Philippines and India boast of the same values of freedom and democracy in their political systems, brought about by a shared history of Western colonial experiences. Moreover, both are developing countries that confront similar issues and challenges in their economic developments, such as the rapid rise in population; sharp expansion of people living in poverty; heightened inequality between the rich and the poor, and large development gaps between the urban and rural areas. The two countries also feature similar economic sectors that are currently contributing substantially to their economies, among them agriculture, services, information technology, and business process outsourcing sectors.

In addition, the Philippines and India take pride in their talented and industrious human resources. Both have large populations of young and well-educated professionals who dominate the health, services, and technology-related sectors in their respective economies. Furthermore, the two countries are known for their sizeable number of workers holding manual or professional jobs in various countries, which also serve as a reflection of the valuable migration experiences of both nations through their migrant workers.

Philippines Colleges List


Longer Historical Perspective

The history of Kazakhstan describes the human past in Eurasia's largest segment of the steppe belt, home and crossroads for numerous human groups throughout history. Human activity in the region began with the extinct Pithecanthropus and Sinanthropus 1 million – 800,000 years ago in the Karatau Mountains, Caspian and Balkhash areas, Neanderthals 140 – 40 thousand years ago in the Karatau Mountains and Central Kazakhstan, and the arrival of the modern Homo sapiens 40 – 12 thousand years ago in Southern, Central, and Eastern Kazakhstan. After the end of the last glacial period, 12.5 – 5 thousand years ago, human settlement spread across the whole of Kazakhstan, eventually leading to the extinction of large animals (mammoth, woolly rhinoceros). The hunter-gatherer communes invented bows and boats, and used domesticated wolves and traps for hunting.

The Neolithic Revolution was marked by the appearance of animal husbandry and agriculture, giving rise to the Atbasar, Kelteminar, Botai, Mokanjar, Ust-Narym, and other cultures. The Botai culture (3600–3100 BCE) is credited with the first domestication of horses. Ceramics and polished stone tools also appeared during this period. The 4th – 3rd millennia witnessed the beginning of metal production, manufacture of copper tools, and use of casting molds. In the 2nd millennium, ore mining developed in Central Kazakhstan.

Brief Introduction to Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan , country in Central Asia, with a small portion in Europe, south of Russia and west of China. The total area is 2,717,300 sq km (1,049,200 sq mi). Kazakhstan is the second-largest member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), an organization of republics that once were part of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The capital is Astana, and the largest city is Almaty.

Land and Resources:

Kazakhstan is a vast, generally low-lying plain, fringed by mountains on the east and southeast. Mountainous areas along the border with Kyrgyzstan in the south reach a height of nearly 5000 m (nearly 16,400 ft); areas near the Caspian Sea, the lowest point in Europe, lie below sea level.


Kazakhstan has a population (1997 estimate) of 16,881,793. Although they are the single largest ethnic group in Kazakhstan, Kazaks constitute an overall minority in their own country, with 43.2 percent of the total population. Until recently, Russians, the next largest group, even outnumbered Kazaks in Kazakhstan. The official state language is Kazakh, a Turkic language, although Russian is spoken by more than three-fourths of the people.


Industry, particularly mining, constitutes the largest branch of the economy. Kazakhstan contains the largest reserves of chromium, tungsten, copper, lead, and zinc ores in the former USSR. Agricultural yields, formerly the basis of the economy, have fluctuated in the 1990s, but Kazakhstan remains a major producer of wheat.

In 1994 Kazakhstan signed an agreement that established economic contacts with the European Union (EU). The country's unit of currency is the tenge (67.30 tenge equal U.S.$1; 1996).


Kazakhstan's climate is characterized by great variations in temperature. Throughout the country precipitation is meager. Deserts and semideserts cover more than two-thirds of the surface area.

India - Kazakhstan Relationship

India and Kazakhstan have historical, cultural, and social links. In this respect, the trade relationship between the two countries has its own sign ificance. Literature reveals that both the countries have comparative cost advantages in trading amongst themselves for several reasons. Historic trade relation, geographical proximity, identical culture, similar agriculture productions and economic development are few cited examples quite repeatedly.

At the same time, however, these trade relations between the two are not without constraints. Although trade statistics show an increasing trend of trade in both the exports and imports of India and Kazakhstan, it is nevertheless noteworthy that the trade balance is not in favour of Kazakhstan. As such, it does not present a convincing picture in the macroeconomic performance of Kazakhstan. Trade agreements held between the two countries are continuously reflecting this fact.

Still both countries have realized the significance of bilateral trade. Kazakhstan’s trade with India is likely to play a key role in trade and industrial fronts in the future of the country. Therefore, taking into account these factors, an attempt has been made here to analyze some of the key issues related with Indo-Kazakh trade relation and scope for improving trade relationship between these two countries in future.

Kazakhstan College List


Longer Historical Perspective

The history of the Kyrgyz people and the land of Kyrgyzstan goes back more than 2,000 years. Although geographically isolated by its mountainous location, it had an important role as part of the historical Silk Road trade route. In between periods of self-government it was ruled by Göktürks, the Uyghur Empire, and the Khitan people, before being conquered by the Mongols in the 13th century; subsequently it regained independence but was invaded by Kalmyks, Manchus and Uzbeks. In 1876 it became part of the Russian Empire, remaining in the USSR as the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic after the Russian Revolution. Following Mikhael Gorbachev's democratic reforms in the USSR, in 1990 pro-independence candidate Askar Akayev was elected president of the SSR. On 31 August 1991, Kyrgyzstan declared independence from Moscow, and a democratic government was subsequently established.

The Kyrgyz state reached its greatest expansion after defeating the Uyghur Khaganate in 840 AD. Then Kyrgyz quickly moved as far as the Tian Shan range and maintained their dominance over this territory for about 200 years. In the 12th century, however, the Kyrgyz domination had shrunk to the Altay Range and the Sayan Mountains as a result of the rising Mongol expansion. With the rise of the Mongol Empire in the 13th century, the Kyrgyz migrated south. Plano Carpin, an envoy of the Papal states, and William Rubruck, an envoy of France, all wrote about their life under the Mongols. Various Turkic peoples ruled them until 1685, when they came under the control of the Oirats (Dzungars).

Brief Introduction to Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked and mountainous country located in Central Asia and bordered by China, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The government system is a republic. The chief of state is the President and the head of government is the Prime Minister. Kyrgyzstan has an emerging mixed economic system in which the economy includes a variety of private freedom, combined with centralized economic planning and government regulation. Kyrgyzstan is a member of the Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC).

Interstate Statistical Committee of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CISSTAT)

The Interstate Statistical Committee of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is an official source of statistical information on social and economic situations in the CIS countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan). Frequently updated press releases provide statistical data on numerous economic indicators related to each CIS country.


Kyrgyzstan has a continental climate with cold winters and warm summers. In the lowlands, the temperature ranges from around -6°C (21°F) in January to 24°C (75°F) in July. In the low-lying Fergana Valley of the south temperatures may peak as high as the low 40s in summer. In the highlands, the temperatures range from between -20° (-4°F in January to 12°C (54°F) in July, although some high mountain valleys can drop as low as -30°C (-22°F) in winter. Rainfall is fairly low throughout the country but there can be heavy snowfalls during winter. The wettest area is the mountains above the Fergana Valley; the driest, the southwest shore of Lake Issyk-Kul. March to May and October to November are usually the wettest months.

India - Kyrgyzstan Relationship

Historically, India has had close contacts with Central Asia, especially countries which were part of the Ancient Silk Route, including Kyrgyzstan. During the Soviet era, India and the then Kyrgyzia Republic had limited political, economic and cultural contacts. Former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi visited Bishkek and Issyk Kul lake in 1985. Since the independence of Kyrgyz Republic on 31st August, 1991, India was among the first to establish diplomatic relations in 1992; the resident Mission of India was set up in 1994.

Kyrgyzstan Colleges List


Longer Historical Perspective

Archeologists claim that the landmass of the country has been inhabited since Paleolithic Era. Since 4th century BC, the kingdom of Georgiawas ruled by different kings and empires. The state formation has been there in the country since 7th century BC. In 1917, Georgia gained independence from Russia. Post this, the country has been part of many wars. Again in 1921, the army was defeated by the troops loyal to Russia. Ultimately in 1991, the country regained its independence.

Brief Introduction to Georgia

Georgia is a Caucasian country situated at the intersection of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is a member of Council of Europe. The education system in the country has revamped since 2004. In the country, education is compulsory for children in the age bracket of 6 to 14. The capital of this country is Tibilsi. The mountainous terrain of the country is rich in store of gold, silver, iron, copper and other natural resources.

Georgia has become the commercial leader of the region. The state now ranks first in the production of peanuts, pecans, lima beans and pimiento peppers. Savannah has been called "this nation's most beautiful city" and Atlanta has become the leading transportation center of the southeast. The famous Margaret Mitchell novel, Gone With the Wind was written in Georgia and Atlanta served host to the 1996 Summer Olympics. If you ever find yourself in Vidalia, grab one of those renowned "Vidalia Onions".

  • Forests and lumber
  • Rivers and lakes
  • Coastal shores
  • Marshes and wetlands
  • Farmland
  • Marble
  • Minerals
  • Manganese

The climate of Georgia is typical of a humid subtropical climate with most of the state having mild winters and hot summers. The Atlantic Ocean on the east coast of Georgia and the hill country in the north impact the state's climate.

India - Georgia Relationship

The Indian community is comprised of businessmen, workers, etc.; their number ranges between 200 and 300. In addition, there are estimated 300 Indian nationals working for Indian companies which have business operations in Georgia. Traditionally, Indian students have been coming to Georgia to study Medicine at the Tbilisi State Medical University; their numbers have been between 500 and 550 on average. Beginning from early 2010, a large number of Indian school leavers arrived in Georgia to pursue several short and medium term professional courses of duration of less than one year at Georgian Polytechnics under the false hope and promises that attractive jobs and PR status will be available as soon as they complete these courses.

Appropriate measures including an advisory on the website of the Ministry of External Affairs have been taken to apprise the prospective Indian nationals of the ground realities. No incident of ethnic/racial violence against the Indian community has come to notice. Indian films and food are popular in Georgia; there are two Indian Restaurants in Tbilisi. Interest in learning Hindi is palpable. The India-Georgia Cultural Association ‘Bharat’ is engaged in promoting Indian culture; it is coordinating Hindi classes in Tbilisi for which the Government of India is extending the required support.

Georgia College List



This vast Eurasian land mass covers more than 17m sq km, with a climate ranging from the Arctic north to the generally temperate south. In the period of rapid privatisation in the early 1990s, the government of President Boris Yeltsin created a small but powerful group of magnates, often referred to as "oligarchs", who acquired vast interests in the energy and media sectors. President Yeltsin's successor, Vladimir Putin, moved to reduce the political influence of oligarchs soon after taking office, forcing some into exile and prosecuting others. Mikhail Khodorkovsky, the former head of the Yukos oil company and a supporter of the liberal opposition, is serving eight years in a Siberian penal colony on tax and fraud charges. Yukos assets were later acquired by the state oil giant Rosneft.


Russia is the largest country in the world, spanning nine time zones. The landscape varies widely, from vast open tracts in the European heartlands and the taiga and tundra of Siberia, to mountainous terrain. Agriculture is largely confined to the European regions and the southern belt of Siberia. Further north, the main industries are forestry and extraction of energy and minerals. The main communications across the country are by air, and the Trans-Siberian railway. The road system is not well developed countrywide. Russia's great rivers also play an important part in transportation as well as in hydroelectric power generation.


The value of the Russian rouble is closely aligned to the oil price. Surging oil prices fuelled strong appreciation at the start of 2011, but since May the rouble has fluctuated in line with the oil price, depreciating by 12% against the US dollar in the third quarter. Significant net capital outflows - $50bn in the year to October - have been driven by a number of factors including a general flight to safety from emerging markets and investor concerns about falling oil prices and political risk.

International Relations

The Russian Federation is recognised in international law as continuing the legal personality of the Soviet Union which was dissolved on 31 December 1991. Russia is a member of international institutions such as the UN (where it is a permanent member of the UN Security Council), G8, G20, Council of Europe and Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Russia has applied to join the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Russia maintains close relations with many of other former Soviet republics through the framework of the Commonwealth of Independent States, Collective Security Treaty Organisation, Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, and others.

India - Russia Relationship

Despite the large number of bilateral agreements signed as a result of Russian President Vladimir Putin’s visit to Delhi, there are many obstacles to an improved relationship with India that require pragmatic approaches from both sides. Sample the following remarks from Modi: “The steadfast support of the people of Russia for India has been there even at difficult moments in our history. It has been a pillar of strength for India's development, security and international relations. India, too, has always stood with Russia through its own challenges. The character of global politics and international relations is changing. However, the importance of this relationship and its unique place in India's foreign policy will not change. In many ways, its significance to both countries will grow further in the future.”

Russia Colleges List

Caribbean Island

Longer Historical Perspective

The U.S. has had relations with Iran ever since the last quarter of the nineteenth century. American missionaries have been in Iran even longer than that. But the United States’ real engagement with Iran dates only from WWII. The relationship has generally been close, but it has been punctuated first by the involvement of the CIA in the coup of 1953 which overthrew a popular prime minister, Mohammed Mossadegh, and then by the Islamic Revolution of 1979, which led to a breach in relations that has not yet been repaired. Indeed, two countries that were once close friends and allies now see each other, respectively, as the “Great Satan” and a member of an “Axis of Evil.”

Looking at how some of the leading historians and analysts of the U.S.-Iranian relationship have dealt with this issue, it’s interesting to note this constant sense of loss, of what might have been. Barry Rubin entitled his work on the relationship Paved with Good Intentions; James Bill subtitled his Eagle and the Lion with “The Tragedy of Iranian-American Relations.” Gary Sick, a former member of the National Security Council, subtitles his “America’s Tragic Encounter with Iran.” A recent book by journalist Barbara Slavin plays on this idea of a relationship that might have been much better than it is, entitling her book Bitter Friends, Bosom Enemies.

Between 1945-79, the U.S.-Iranian relationship was in some ways similar to the U.S.-Saudi relationship, where the U.S. dealt with one ruling family. In the case of Iran, the U.S. dealt with one ruler, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who came to the throne in 1941 and continued to rule for almost four decades. In this period, the relationship was governed by a number of enduring and persistent features.

Brief Introduction to Caribbean Island

United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and in area. It consists of 50 states and a federal district. The conterminous (excluding Alaska and Hawaii) United States stretches across central North America from the Atlantic Ocean on the east to the Pacific Ocean on the west, and from Canada on the north to Mexico and the Gulf of Mexico on the south. The state of Alaska is located in extreme NW North America between the Arctic and Pacific oceans and is bordered by Canada on the east. The state of Hawaii, an island chain, is situated in the E central Pacific Ocean c.2,100 mi (3,400 km) SW of San Francisco. Washington, D.C., is the capital of the United States, and New York is its largest city.

The outlying territories and areas of the United States include: in the Caribbean Basin, Puerto Rico (a commonwealth associated with the United States) and the Virgin Islands of the United States (purchased from Denmark in 1917); in the Pacific Ocean, Guam (ceded by Spain after the Spanish-American War), the Northern Mariana Islands (a commonwealth associated with the United States), American Samoa, Wake Island, and several other islands. The United States also has compacts of free association with the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Republic of Palau, and the Federated States of Micronesia.


coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, rare earth elements, uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc, petroleum, natural gas, timber


Weather varies widely across the continental USA, as well as in Alaska and Hawaii. In general terms, summers are hot and humid in the plains and southern states, while the southwest is very hot and quite dry

India - Caribbean Island Relationship

India is now reaching out to Latin America and the Caribbean, exploring possibilities for greater economic engagement with the region, beyond its traditional diaspora links with the Commonwealth Caribbean and Suriname and the presence of a fair number of Indian merchants in Panama.

In 1997, taking into consideration the potential for increased trade with Latin America and the Caribbean, India’s Department of Commerce launched an integrated programme called Focus: LAC, which has since been extended up to March 2014. The programme aims at encouraging the Indian private sector, as well as state entities, to develop stronger trade and investment linkages with Latin America and the Caribbean, at the same time as it focuses on enhancing India’s export of textiles, engineering products, computer software, chemicals and pharmaceuticals to the region.

Caribbean Colleges List